Zero and One also fascinates me and could not able to understand why Digital Circuits are always linked with Mathematics. Claude Shannon father of Information Theory, was the one who gave us that concept. Fortunately during googling, I got the thesis published by Claude Shannon in 1940 which tells all about the building block of using mathematics in digital circuits. Click here to access his thesis of “A symbolic Analysis Of Relay and Switching Circuits".
A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits, Claude Elwood Shannon proved that Boolean algebra and binary arithmetic could be used to simplify the arrangement of the electromechanical relays then used in telephone routing switches, then turned the concept upside down and also proved that it should be possible to use arrangements of relays to solve Boolean algebra problems.