Friday, October 29, 2010

Mux is sending broadcast

Two days spent in troubleshooting a point to point link with lot of hops between them. I stumble to see one weird thing that whenever the mux sfp port is connected to the router, the router card starts rebooting. This is the case not with a single router but with the multiple ones. We changed everything but all in vein. At last we able to catch a little point about mux which is using layer 2 switching and forwarding vlans traffic to the router directly. The broadcast was so huge which forces routes card to halt.
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3G Life

3G is one of the best way to connect human network. For me 3G will open the doors to connect me swiftly over remote and reach anywhere in the world with no delays. It is not only opening doors towards the bandwidth but also giving new opportunities to vendors. By using 3G, one can surf fastly and by subscribing skype or gtalk, drastically reduce the phone bills.

Business Boost By 3G
I am feeling personally, 3G will drastically boost our house business. If all our clients would have 3G, then we can present the realtime demo of any of the product live. Earlier it is not like that.

Stay In Touch
Most of time I keep on travelling, by using 3G anytime I can see my friends and family members without any constraints.
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Sunday, October 24, 2010

Twitter Is Over Capacity

Stumble to see about Twitter website message telling about its overcapacity.

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Saturday, October 23, 2010

CCIE SP Version 3

Finally Cisco has made an announcement for the newer CCIE SP Version 3 which will be starting by 18th April, 2010. The newer version is having lot of changes w.r.t to version 2.

Exam Sections and Sub-task Objectives

CCIE SP Lab Exam Topics v3.0
1.0 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Core IP Technologies
1.1 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Packet over SONET
1.2 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot GE/10GE in the core
1.3 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot IGP routing
1.4 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot MPLS and LDP
1.5 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot MPLS Traffic Engineering
1.6 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot BGP
1.7 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Muliticast
1.8 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot High availability
1.9 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Convergence
1.10 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot SP QoS
1.11 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Security in the core
2.0 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Access/Edge Connection Technologies
2.1 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot FE/GE and Ethernet Trunk connections
2.2 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Frame-relay connections
2.3 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot PPP connections
3.0 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot L3VPN Technologies
3.1 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Intra-AS L3VPN
3.2 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Inter-AS L3VPN
3.3 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Carrier Supporting Carrier (CSC)
3.4 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot VPN extranet , Internet access
3.5 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot VRF Service
3.6 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Multicast VPN
3.7 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot GRE L3VPN
4.0 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot L2VPN Technologies
4.1 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot AToM
4.2 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot VPLS and Carrier Ethernet
4.3 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot L2TPv3 for L2 VPN
4.4 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot GRE L2VPN
5.0 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Managed Services Traversing the Core
5.1 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Managed Voice/Video services traversing the core
5.2 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Managed Security services traversing the core
5.3 Implement, Optimize and Troubleshoot Service Level Agreements for managed services traversing the core

Topics of CCIE SP Version 2
Bridging and Switching
VTP, VLAN, Trunk, Spanning tree
Frame Relay, DLCI, FR multilink
ATM PVC, SVC, FR/ATM interworking
IGP Routing
IS-IS, Level 1/2, Metric
Redistribution, Summarization, Filtering
Policy routing
EGP Routing
BGP attributes
Confederation, Route reflector
Synchronization, Aggregation, Stability
Redistribution, Filtering
SP Multicast
Auto RP, Static RP, BSR, Anycast RP
MP-BGP for multicast, MSDP
Label distribution, LDP/ TDP
Label filtering, Label merging, Multipath
MPLS Netflow
MPLS Traffic Engineering
PE-CE routing, RIPv2, OSPF, EIGRP, Static, ISIS, EBGP
BGP Extended Community
Carrier Supporting Carrier
VRF-Lite, VRF Select
Multicast MPLS VPN
GRE, multipoint GRE
AToM, L2TPv3
SP QoS and Security
Marking, Shaping, Policing
ACL, RPF, Filtering
Routing update security
Common attacks
High Availability
Fast reroute, Link/Node protection

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Monday, October 4, 2010

Back To Back Vrf Inter-AS Option A

Carrier Support Carrier is also known as Inter-AS communication some times (but both are different) and it is well defined in three options. Out of three I am working on option A which is back to back vrf model.
Inter-AS communication is required when the same customer is having the few location in one service provider cloud and few locations in another service provider cloud. Customer’s objective is to access all the location in MPLS cloud, no matter where there are. To achieve the objective, both service provider need to do a mutual contract to serve the customer. In the depicted figure, PE-2 and PE-3 are the edge routers of both service provider cloud and are connected over fast Ethernet link.

In this scenario, I am using different VRFs name and with different RD values. One is VRF BLUE with RD 1:1 and another is vrf MPLSVPN with RD 2:1.
CE-1 access CE-2 network which travels from AS-1 to AS-2. But for customer it is end to end a single MPLS network.
Back to back vrf is created on PE-2 and PE-2 with name BLUE and MPLSVPN.

PE-2 Vrf Configuration
ip vrf BLUE
 rd 1:1
 route-target export 1:1
 route-target import 1:1

PE-3 Vrf Configuration
ip vrf MPLSVPN
 rd 2:1
 route-target export 2:1
 route-target import 2:1

Interface Configuration of PE-2 and PE-3 Over IPv4 Link (Back to back vrf is created)
PE-2 Configuration
interface FastEthernet1/1
 ip vrf forwarding BLUE
 ip address
 duplex auto
 speed auto
 no clns route-cache

PE-3 Configuration
interface FastEthernet1/0
 ip vrf forwarding MPLSVPN
 ip address
 duplex auto
 speed auto
 no clns route-cache

Reverse Routes for the remote lan of different service providers by point next hop of back to back vrf interface ip address.
ip route vrf BLUE

ip route vrf MPLSVPN

Now see how the labels forwarding will work in back to back vrf model.
CE1 sends a packet with destination towards PE-1. Given is the output on PE1.

The above figure depicts that is part of vrf BLUE and reachable by ip address which is the ip address of PE-2. This will add label 21 as vpnv4 label and for it will append the label 16. See the below image to verify the labels:-

PE1 will forward the packet to P1/RR1 router with the above labels and P1/RR1 will perform the penultimate hop popping for PE-2 loopback address. This will forward the packet with only VPNv4 label which is 21. See the below output to verify:-

Now PE-2 will receive the packet with only VPNv4 label and perform the no label on it. After that it will send the packet to PE-3.

PE-3 will receive the pure IPv4 packet and put that packet in MPLVPN vrf. Then it creates a label stack with VPNv4 label of along its next hop IGP address.

Label 17 is for IGP next hop i.e. and label 20 is VPNv4 label. It will forward the packet to P2 with the label stack 17 and 20. P2 will perform the penultimate hop popping for and forwards the packet to PE-4 with only VPNv4 label i.e.20.

PE-4 will receive with only label 20 and will that the label belongs to MPLSVPN vrf.

End to end trace route from CE-1 to CE-2

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Sunday, October 3, 2010

Cell Mode MPLS Over ATM – Manually Specify VPI/VCI Range

In my previous post, I have shown how to manually configure control VC at LC-ATM interface. In this post, we will see how we can manually configure the VPI/VCI in MPLS ATM networks. This is mainly used at that time when SP doesn’t want to add the individual entries at each time for customers. By using command “mpls atm vpi 10 vci-range 33-100”, we actually tell the router to use LVC for these VPI/VCI values. Encapsulation type will be used as MUX because these VPI/VCI values are used for MPLS datagram’s.

In the above out, still the control VC is using VPI 0 and VCI 32 because it is not changed. If you want to change the control VC values simply add the following command:-
mpls atm control-vc 1 100

Make sure both the commands are used in both ends.

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Friday, October 1, 2010

Cell Mode MPLS Over ATM

In Cell Mode MPLS, ATMLSR is also responsible for participating in LDP/TDP with the adjacent neighbor routers.  Edge ATM routers are connected with LC-ATM (Label Control) LSR routers over LC interface. Cell mode MPLS uses VPI/VCI field in the ATM header as label value. Cell Mode MPLS uses downstream on demand for label propagation.
PE1#show mpls ldp neighbor
    Peer LDP Ident:; Local LDP Ident
        TCP connection: -
        State: Oper; Msgs sent/rcvd: 64/64; Downstream on demand
        Up time: 00:48:08
        LDP discovery sources:
          ATM1/0.1, Src IP addr:
OSPF is used as IGP with single area. Basic configuration of LC-ATM interface is given below which is using the default values of VPI/VCI:-
Configuration of LC- ATM Edge
interface ATM1/0
 no ip address
 no atm enable-ilmi-trap
 no clns route-cache
interface ATM1/0.1 mpls
 ip address
 no atm enable-ilmi-trap
 mpls label protocol ldp
 mpls ip

interface ATM1/0
 no ip address
 no atm enable-ilmi-trap
 no clns route-cache
interface ATM1/0.1 mpls
 ip address
 no atm enable-ilmi-trap
 mpls label protocol ldp
 mpls ip

In the above configuration, default VPI/VCI values are used. To check the VPI/VCI values, run “show atm vc” command on LC-ATM Edge router.

The above output reveals lot of information about the VPI and VCI values along with the encapsulation used. First VPI/VCI is 0/32 which is default and used as control vc. It uses the LLC/SNAP encapsulation as defined in RFC 2684. It SHOULD be possible to configure an LC-ATM interface with   additional VPI/VCIs that are used to carry control information or non-labeled packets. In that case, the VCI values MUST NOT be in the 0-32 range.(RFC 3035 Section 7)

The other  LVC uses VPI/VCI values are 1/33, 1/34, 1/35,1/36 and 1/37 with encapsulation MUX. The LVC uses MUX encapsulation because they carry MPLS datagram.

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