Sunday, February 12, 2012

MEF: Benefits of Multiple Class Of Service Model For Mobile Backhauls

According to all wireless operators, delivering the bandwidth required in the 4G-LTE wireless backhaul is “the single biggest challenge and operating cost in the industry.” Currently a single class of service model is being deployed by the mobile operators at aggregation side where the traffic is classified and there after all the traffic is forwarded to a single EVC without defining the priority. Single-CoS scenario, however, does NOT respect these differing priorities which means at any point of time access provider cannot use the stat multiplexing.
To address the issue, a new multiple CoS model is added for the access providers. The configuration of the Mobile Operator CE devices is similar to that for the Single CoS Ethernet Mobile Backhaul alternative. The primary added configuration is ensuring that each Frame it passes to the Access provider is marked with the appropriate priority for that Frame. It does so by marking the Priority Code Point (PCP) bits in the Frame.

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Sunday, February 5, 2012

802.3ah - Ethernet OAM - Part 1

802.3ah is a link level Metro Ethernet OAM which is used for the last mile monitoring purpose. It cannot scale more than a single hop. It can transmit at max rate of 10 frames per second which is equivalent to 100ms transmission time for single frame. At least we need 3 frames to detect the link loss with high cpu usage which will contribute almost 300ms to acheive only link level convergence time.

OAM discovery
Remote Failure Indication remote loopback
Port Level Loopback
Fault Isolation
Perfomrance and Status Monitoring

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Saturday, February 4, 2012

G.8032 Ethernet Ring Protection Switching

Spanning tree protocol is used in layer 2 networks for logical loop avoidance because laer 2 PDU doesn’t have any TTL value defined in their header like layer 3 packets does. Convergence and scalability is the biggest challenges for the evolving Metro Ethernet networks. RPR aka Resilient Packet Ring was proposed by IEEE (802.17) with 50ms convergence with new mac 802.17 header enhancements, which was not compatible with existing Ethernet header consequences lot of new efforts required to build a new code.
So a protocol is require which could be fitted in the current Ethernet header with less efforts and provides faster convergence than the legacy protocols. ITU came up with Ethernet Ring Protection Protocol aka ERPS(G.8032) which uses the SONET/SDH APS(Automatic Protection Switching) protocol for protection switching and Ethernet operation and maintenance for detecting of faster failures which is less than 50ms.
In an Ethernet ring, without congestion, with all nodes in the idle state with less than 1'200 km of ring fibre circumference, and fewer than 16 to 255 nodes, the switch completion time (transfer time) for a failure on a ring link shall be less than 50 ms. In fact, practically it is not possible.

In summary, G.8032 ERP is developed to meet the following objectives:
•To provide efficient network connectivity.
•To provide rapid service restoration (sub-50ms).
•To support multiple E-Services (e.g., E-LINE, E-TREE, E-LAN).
•To be client and server layer agnostic. That is, G.8032 ERP can be supported over (virtually)
any physical/server layer and can transport (virtually) any Ethernet client.
•To utilize existing IEEE 802.1 bridging and IEEE 802.3 MAC hardware. Thus is simply a
software increment on existing Ethernet switching equipment.
•To support flexible deployment models. To be deployed in Access, Metro, and Core network
•To leverage Ethernet PHY bandwidth (e.g., 1/10/40/100GbE MAC), cost and time-to-market curves in support of cost effective and large bandwidth rings.
•To be standardized in ITU-T SG15/Q9.
•To translate into lower OPEX and CAPEX for the service provider (Very Important).

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