Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Convergence Delay of a Routing Update For Static, RIP, OSPF, EIGRP, ISIS and BGP

Got some good docs for the maximum Convergence Delay of a Routing Update For Static, RIP, OSPF, EIGRP, ISIS and BGP.
Br/> Using the below described convergence points the theoretical maximum propagation delay of a routing update can be calculated from one VPN site to another VPN site (CE router to CE router).

- The convergence points are taken as T1_max, T2_max, T3_max, T4_max till T8_Max

- As per the convergence points the maximum theoretical convergence times are calculated for various protocols like RIPv2, EIGRP, OSPF, ISIS, BGP and static routes.

- The total convergence time taken for a static route is 25 seconds

- The maximum convergence time for RIP approximately 85 seconds for new routes, 25 seconds for serial links and 265 seconds in case of route flap.

- For EIGRP the convergence timer is much faster and is around 25 seconds.

- The convergence time increases slightly to 35 seconds in case of OSPF

- For ISIS the maximum theoretical convergence value is same as OSPF approximately 35 seconds.

- The convergence value increases to 85 seconds in case of BGP.

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Friday, March 6, 2015

Performance Impact With Various Types of Over Subscriptions In Virtual World

Once you start thinking of Virtualization, the first question comes to your mind is that can we leverage stat multiplexing in virtualization world or not, the way we leverage it in Ethernet world. The answer to this question is yes. But there are some oversubscription scenarios which can imapct the performance of system.

Every Virtual Network Function is designed to run in a virtualized environment under the control of a hypervisor. Hypervisor could be of VMware ESXi, Citrix XEN, KVM, etc.). There are various over subscription scenarios which can impact the performance of end to end system in a virtualized environment. The system resource over subscription scenarios in a virtualized environment are totally different from that of a physical environment.

The following resources can be oversubscribed in a virtualized environment & drastically reduce the VNF performance:

1. Memory Over subscription
If the amount of memory allocated to all the VMs provisioned in a host exceeds that of the available physical memory, then the VM performance can drop significantly, as memory is stored on a disk and then swapped in when needed by a VM. There are various memory over subscription techniques are available by various hypervisors but the questions comes does the same is also supported by the VNF or not.

2. I/O Over subscription
The I/O resource cannot be formally oversubscribed as VMs are not allocated I/O bandwidth, but if the expected bandwidth of all the VMs is more than the physical I/O available there will be packet drops. Also QoS performance will be poor if I/O is congested. This also impacts the performance of VNFs.

3. CPU Over subscription
The number of vCPUs allocated to VNF provisioned in a system can exceed the total number of physical CPUs/cores available in the system.

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Sunday, March 1, 2015

When To Start Thinking of Virtualization ?

It's always a tough decision when to start thinking of Virtualization. But the best and optimum case of virtualization is when you have high CPU requirement but less IO requirements.

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